Biometric Authentication: Complete Overview

Biometric Authentication

Biometric Authentication

A system of authentication using the identity card for persons of their biometric data.

Biometric authentication  is the process of proving and verifying the authenticity of the name declared by the user, through the presentation by the user of his biometric image and by transforming this image in accordance with a predetermined authentication protocol .

These systems should not be confused with biometric identification systems , which are,

for example, driver face recognition systems and biometric time tracking . Biometric authentication systems operate in an active rather than passive mode and almost always involve authorization. Although these systems are not identical to authorization systems, they are often used together (for example, in door locks with fingerprint verification).

Face geometry authentication

Biometric authentication of an individual supported face geometry may be a fairly common method of identification and authentication . The technical implementation may be a complex mathematical problem. Extensive use of multimedia technology, with the assistance of which you’ll see a sufficient number of video cameras at train stations, airports, squares, streets, roads and other crowded places, has become decisive within the development of this direction. to create a three-dimensional model of a person’s face, the contours of the eyes, eyebrows, lips, nose, and other various elements of the face are selected, then the space between them is calculated, and with the assistance of it a three-dimensional model is made. Defining a singular template for a selected person requires 12 to 40 characteristic elements. The template should take under consideration many variations of the image in cases of face rotation, tilt, changes in lighting, changes in expression. The range of such options varies counting on the aim of using this method (for identification, authentication, remote search over large areas, etc.).Some algorithms make it possible to catch up on the presence of glasses, a hat, a mustache and a beard.

Fingerprint authentication

Fingerprint authentication is the most widely used biometric user authentication technology. The method uses the uniqueness of the papillary patterns on people’s fingers. The print obtained with the scanner is converted into a digital code and then compared with previously entered reference sets. The advantages of using fingerprint authentication are ease of use, convenience and reliability. The versatility of this technology makes it possible to apply it in any areas and for solving any and the most diverse tasks where reliable and fairly accurate identification of users is required.

To obtain information about fingerprints, special scanners are used. To obtain a clear electronic representation of fingerprints, rather specific methods are used, since the fingerprint is too small, and it is very difficult to obtain clearly distinguishable papillary patterns.

There are three main types of fingerprint scanners commonly used: capacitive, rolling, optical. The most common and widely used are optical scanners, but they have one major drawback. Optical scanners are not immune to dummies and dead fingers, which means they are not as effective as other types of scanners. Also, in some sources, fingerprint scanners are divided into 3 classes according to their physical principles: optical, silicon, ultrasonic.

Voice authentication

A biometric voice authentication method characterized by simple use. This method doesn’t require expensive equipment, a microphone and a sound card are enough . Currently, this technology is developing rapidly, as this authentication method is widely utilized in modern business centers . There are quite few ways to create a template by voice. Usually, these are different combinations of frequency and statistical characteristics of the voice.The main and defining disadvantage of the voice authentication method is that the low accuracy of the tactic. for instance, an individual with a chilly might not be recognized by the system. a crucial problem is that the diversity of the manifestations of the voice of 1 person: the voice can change counting on the state of health, age, mood, etc. This diversity presents serious difficulties in identifying the distinctive properties of the human voice. additionally, accounting for the noise component is another important and unsolved problem within the practical use of voice authentication. Since the probability of type II errorswhen using this method, it’s large (about one percent), voice authentication is employed to regulate access in rooms with a medium security level, like computer classrooms, laboratories of producing companies, etc.

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